Jewish burials: open air and on-line

Lena Roos, Professor, Study of Religions, Södertörn University

Restrictions during the pandemic meant a return to more traditional burial practices, as well as radical changes for Jews in Sweden.

The Jewish communities in Sweden were severely affected early on in the pandemic due to the fact that the first wave of covid infections coincided with the holiday Purim, when family members from various generations get together to celebrate. The virus also made it into the Jewish senior residence in Stockholm, resulting in a number of fatalities. This probably accelerated the decision-making process in the Jewish communities in Sweden, in comparison with many other religious communities, and as of March 19th, 2020, the Great Synagogue in Stockholm closed for IRL services and started sending zoom services for Friday kabbalat shabbat as well as a weekday morning service.[1]

Due to the number of early casualties, the Jewish burial societies were forced to speed up the process of burial, so that in many cases the burial took place the same day that the person had died, or at least the following. This is essentially a return to a more traditional Jewish practice, where speedy burials are the ideal, even if this is seen as a rare thing in Swedish society, where Christian burials are often postponed for several weeks until the family members can agree on a suitable date. On the other hand, the speedy burials during the pandemic meant overcoming a previous resistance to use of digital media. In the past, there had been a reluctance to even allowing photos to be taken during the burial. Now there was a clash between two principles that were both perceived as important: on the one hand the practice of the speedy burial, on the other hand, the commandment to attend funerals. It is considered a mitzvah, a meritorious deed, to attend burials, especially for friends and family, but also for others. During the pandemic, however, due to restrictions on travel, often not even the closest relatives could attend IRL. Was it then reasonable to prevent relatives from attending the funeral through livestream? Before long, this had become an accepted part of Jewish burials, enabling friends and family who were sheltered in their homes, or maybe lived in Israel, to attend the funerals. And so it has remained after the pandemic.

Another clash was between Jewish traditional practice and the restrictions for religious gatherings imposed by the Swedish government, a maximum of eight participants during the height of the pandemic. Many Jewish prayers, such as the kaddish, the prayer for the departed, requires a minyan, a group of ten adult (traditionally, male) Jews. This was however solved by transferring the funeral service outside. A new tradition developed where only the closest family was allowed into the funeral chapel to say their goodbye to the deceased. The rest of the mourners waited outside where the traditional ceremony then took place, and where the participants could keep a safe distance, and where the restrictions of merely eight participants did not apply.

[1] Baran, Rachel. 2020. När fysiska religiösa rum stängs och digitala mötesplatser öppnas. En kvalitativ studie av judiskt församlingsliv under coronapandemin våren 2020. Stockholms universitet.

Image credit: By Lars (Lon) Olsson – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0,

Not Even the Digital Is Secure

Lena Roos, Professor, Study of Religions, Södertörn University

Ever since the Hamas attack and kidnappings of October 7th, Jewish congregations and organizations in Sweden have experienced a need for heightened security and vigilance on the part of their members. In addition to the trauma of having many members with family and friends in Israel, Swedish Jews once again have to deal with the difficulty of the general public to differentiate between the state of Israel and Jews elsewhere. As a result, some community leaders discourage members from wearing Jewish symbols such as the Star of David or speaking Hebrew in public places. Even a purely academic setting as the Forum for Jewish studies at Uppsala University announces that they will forthwith have security guards at their open lectures and seminars.

Does this situation make these organizations reactivate digital forms used during the pandemic? Forum for Jewish studies at Uppsala University continue with having their events in hybrid form, both on campus and over zoom as they have since the pandemic, well aware of the fact that even an online format is not completely secure since one of their online lectures was hacked and replaced by painfully loud music and a pornographic film. One of the Swedish rabbis, who spends uncountable hours on the phone these days, supporting devastated and frightened members, sighs and says: “It is not the same. When something like this happens, you need to be together”. Being together seems to be the very thing that is not possible today, since many public events in the Jewish congregations are cancelled for security reasons. But in a situation when some members are afraid of even having an online connection to their congregation, cancelling subscriptions to e-newsletters, not even the digital seems to be secure enough.

Jews in other parts of Europe seem to be experiencing the same, prompting German Chancellor Olaf Scholz to promise increased security around synagogues, after a thwarted arson attack against a Berlin synagogue and a series of events when Stars of David were painted on apartment buildings with Jewish residents. (A lot of pain’: Europe’s Jews fear rising antisemitism after Hamas attack | Antisemitism | The Guardian). In the article cited above, one young man tells the reporter that he consciously delays his posts on social media, not wanting to advertise his current location.

Practices During the Pandemic as a Glimpse of the Future

Hybrid Worship Gathering: Create an image of a congregation in a church building with some members physically present while others join remotely through digital means, representing the potential future of blended worship experiences.
Lena Roos, Professor, Study of Religions, Södertörn University

Did the covid 19 pandemic accelerate already existing processes of change within religious communities in Europe? Can a study of changes during the pandemic thus be used as a tool to look into the future? This article will address those questions based upon a series of studies done the Church of Sweden.

Sweden did not have hard lockdowns during the pandemic. Rather, the main strategy was to issue “recommendations” such as working from home when possible, avoiding travel during peak hours and when possible conducting meetings and other gathering online. Some restrictions were however imposed. From March 12th, 2020, gatherings of more than 500 people were forbidden. A little more than two weeks later, on March 29th, the maximum number was lowered to 50. November 24th the maximum was further lowered to eight. Funerals were excepted and allowed 20 participants. As an increasing number of the population had been vaccinated, and the pandemic seemed to have started to abate, the restrictions were gradually loosened, the final being removed on September 29th, 2021.[1]

The restrictions affected the religious communities of Sweden, even if less so than in many other countries. Less, because the restrictions were less strict, but also because in reality, many congregations, especially outside larger cities, rarely gathered more than 50 worshipers at the same time. When the maximum number was lowered to eight, however, all congregations were forced to seek alternative strategies for their activities.

A few studies have already been published on the effect of the covid 19 pandemic on a selection of religious communities, mostly Christian, in Sweden. Most data have been gathered concerning the largest denomination, the Church of Sweden whose members comprised 52,8 per cent of the population in 2022.[2] These studies generally indicate that most congregations preferred to find alternative forms for their gatherings, rather that cancelling activities altogether. This is also similar to what has been found in most international studies.[3] I most cases, the Swedish congregations adopted what Heidi Campbell calls a ‘transfer strategy’, meaning that they simply transfer their regular format to a digital format, for instance by setting up a camera in the church and filming the service or streaming it online. In some cases a ‘transform strategy’ was employed, meaning that the analogue format was abandoned and a completely digital format adopted, for instance through online meeting rooms.[4] Some studies seem to indicate that congregations in the Church of Sweden have been less creative than churches in other countries when it comes to finding alternative forms for their activities, possibly due to less restrictions.[5]

Two sets of questionnaires were sent to vicars in the Church of Sweden in 2020.[6] One was part of periodically gathered statistics by the Church of Sweden research unit; one was part of the international research project CONTOC, Churches Online in Times of Corona.[7]

Many of the vicars describe that the most difficult members to reach during the pandemic were those belonging to risk groups, e.g. elderly or/and living in different kinds of assisted living facilities. Although Swedes by international comparison have good internet access, it is estimated that about one million Swedes rarely or never use the internet.[8]

Generally the vicars report on three different types of strategies: 1. Activities were cancelled. This was often the case for activities for senior members, for instance sewing gatherings and Bible study groups, as well as activities for new immigrants. 2. Activities were postponed. This was mainly the case for baptisms and weddings, that were postponed until the restrictions were lifted. 3. Activities were continued in a different form. This was usually the case for the main service of the week, that was often digitized, but 4 out of 10 congregations also report having transferred their youth groups or confirmation classes to a different format, often online.[9] The reason is obvious: since the younger members are more comfortable with and generally have access to digital meeting forms, it is easier to digitize those activities, even if the need may be greater for other groups, such as the elderly, who were more isolated during the pandemic, and generally also more active members of the church. A contributing factor may also be that Church of Sweden staff working with youth had an online presence already before the pandemic, e.g. through the so called ‘net wanderers’ (nätvandrare), who are present on various social fora where young people might risk bullying and other forms of abusive treatment.[10]

One part of the work of the Church of Sweden that was greatly reduced was that done by volunteers. In some cases, less volunteers were needed because activities were cancelled, in other cases, it was because the volunteers themselves belonged to risk groups.[11] This seems to strengthen a trend that was visible already before the pandemic, that the number of volunteers decreases.[12]

There is an interesting difference between female and male vicars concerning pastoral counselling during the pandemic. Whereas many male vicars report that they have reduced the time dedicated to pastoral counselling due to restrictions during the pandemic, many female vicars report the opposite, that they have increased this time, by using digital forms like WhatsApp, Skype, Messenger or regular phone calls. This difference can be linked to differences in their use of social media before the pandemic. Previous research has shown that women use social media more, and in a different manner from men, in order to maintain and deepen already existing relationships.[13] It can also be related to differences between female and male clergy that has been shown in a recent study of young clergy in the Church of Sweden and the Evangelical-Lutheran Church of Finland. In this study the participants were asked to evaluate what aspects of their profession they thought most important. Women ranked being a listener, a companion and an enabler as their most important roles, whereas men gave priority to skills in preaching and liturgy.[14]

There is also an interesting difference between younger and older vicars. Younger vicars as a group state that the worship service in the local church, especially the communion, has become more important for them after having experienced the Covid restrictions. They stress the centrality of the service, whereas they believe that other gatherings, such as meetings with coffee whose main purpose is social will be less important for them in the future. Older vicars, however, say almost the opposite, that the physical church building has become less important for them during the pandemic, and that they hope to continue some of the activities that replaced regular services in the church during the pandemic, for instance meetings in smaller groups and outdoor activities such as communal walks.[15]

There have also been gains in the move to digital formats. Out of those congregations who have used different kinds of digital formats, more than half (54 percent) report reaching new people. This was especially true for those congregations who had digital activities several times per week. 70 percent of these congregations also report that they want to continue with activities in alternative forms, digital and others, after the pandemic as well. [16]

So, if we try to use the developments during the Covid 19 pandemic as a lens to look into the future, what are some possible developments?

– That the use of alternative forms, digital and others, will be greater than before the pandemic.
– That the number of volunteers will remain on a lower level than before, and possibly continue to decrease.
– That as older vicars retire and those who belonged to the younger group of vicars during the pandemic remain, there will be an increased emphasis on liturgical services, mainly communion services, possibly with a decrease of other types of activities in the congregations.

Lena Roos, Professor, Study of Religions
Södertörn University


Campbell, Heidi 2020a. ”What Religious Groups Need to Consider When Trying to Do Church Online”. I Campbell, Heidi (red). The Distanced Church: Reflections on Doing Church Online. Digital Religion Publications.

Chow, Alexander & Kurlberg, Jonas 2020. ”Two or Three Gathered Online: Asian and European Responses to covid-19 and the Digital Church”. Studies in World Christianity 26:3.

CONTOC, Churches Online in Times of Corona:

Fransson, Sara; Gelfgren, Stefan; Jonsson, Pernilla. 2021. Svenska kyrkan online. Att ställa om, ställa in eller fortsätta som vanligt under coronapandemin.

Fransson, Sara. 2022. ”Församlingslivet under coronapandemin. Svenska kyrkan”, Josefson, Ulrik, Wahlström, Magnus (eds.). 2022. Svensk frikyrklighet i pandemin. En studie av församlingen i corona och corona i församlingen. Forskningsrapporter från institutet för pentekostala studier 9, 196-214.

Ganiel, G. (2020). People still need us: A report on a survey of faith leaders on the Island of Ireland during the Covid-19 pandemic.

Hagman, Patrik & Kejonen, Eetu 2019. ”Kön, kyrka och kyrkligt ledarskap. En teologisk studie av unga prästers uppfattningar i Finland och Sverige”. Scandinavian Journal for Leadership & Theology, vol 6.

Kühle, L., & Larsen, T. L. (2021). ‘Forced’ Online Religion: Religious Minority and Majority Communities’ Media Usage during the COVID-19 Lockdown. Religions, 12(7), 496.

Larsen, T. L., Mauritsen, A. L., Sothilingam, S. A., Kühle, L., Borup, J., & Fibiger, M. Q. (2021). Religiøs forandring i en krisetid-Et case-studium af aarhusianske religionsgruppers håndtering af COVID-19-pandemien i efteråret 2020. Religion i Danmark, 10, 92-113.

Lundgren, Linnea. 2022. Trossamfunden och Covid 19. En undersökning om hur pandemin påverkat lokala församlingar i Sverige. Myndigheten för stöd till trossamfund.

[1] Lundgren, 2022, 6-7.

[2] Medlemmar i Svenska kyrkan 1972-2022.pdf

[3] E.g. Ganiel, 2020; Kühle & Larsen, 2021; Larsen et al., 2021.

[4] Campbell 2020.

[5] Chow & Kurlberg 2020.

[6] Fransson et al, 2021.


[8] Fransson et al, 2021, 32.

[9] Fransson et al, 2021, 32.

[10] Fransson et al, 2021, 37.

[11] Fransson et al, 2021, 38-39.

[12] Fransson, 2022, 209.

[13] Fransson et al, 2021, 62-64.

[14] Hagman and Kejonen, 2019.

[15] Fransson, 2022, 201.

[16] Fransson et al, 2021, 73-74.

Image credit – Generated by using the prompt “Hybrid Worship Gathering: Create an image of a congregation in a church building with some members physically present while others join remotely through digital means, representing the potential future of blended worship experiences.

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